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DS1/T1 Line Facts

* DS1/T1 = 1.544 Mbps Upload and Download
* DS1/T1 = 24 DS0's

Full Data T1 Line

A Full Data T1/DS1 Line is a term used to describe a circuit that provides 1.5 megabits per second (Mbps) of high speed Internet access, which is the most prevalent type of T1/DS1 line. A Full Data T1/DS1 can also be used to carry telephone lines and/or VoIP calls, both of which are covered within the Voice, PRI and VoIP sections below. 

Nearly all office based and modern retail businesses require some type of Internet access in order to perform their daily operations, and many have mission critical Internet needs that allow them to continue business operations at all. There are many choices to fulfill this need for Internet access, including Dial-up connections, ISDN, DSL, Cable, Wireless applications, a T1/DS1 Line, or something larger like a T3/DS3 or OC3 (far less common due to high cost). 

A T1/DS1 Line consists of 24 channels that transmit data at 64Kbps each, therefore giving a Full T1/DS1 Line the capacity to transmit 1.54 Mbps of data synchronously (upstream and downstream). Using today's standard email applications and common Internet searching, this amount of bandwidth could support anywhere from 1 to approximately 75 users depending on their needs, preferences, and the company's budget. 

Most commonly Full T1/DS1 Lines are used in offices with 5 to 50 employees. A T1/DS1 circuit provides the most reliable bandwidth available when leased from a high quality T1/DS1 Provider, which is why businesses are willing to pay more for a T1/DS1 than for other services like DSL or Cable. 

In some applications, a T1/DS1 can save money for a company who uses a less reliable bandwidth connection. Since multiple services can be combined on a single T1/DS1, cost efficient solutions are often available if you know what service to ask for (see "Integrated T1/DS1" below) and which providers offer those services in your area.

Internet T1/DS1 pricing starts at approximately $400 per month, but can cost more than $1000 per month if the location of the installation requires a long loop to connect to the network of your local phone company to the network of the T1/DS1 provider. This is usually only the case in very small towns or rural areas where facilities are less dense. 

Most metropolitan areas have many choices of DS1/T1 providers, at least one of which will usually be closer and cheaper than the rest. Pricing will fluctuate dramatically depending on the Provider and the location of your business, which is why it is sometimes safer and easier to use an experienced Telecom Consultant to guide you in finding the best solution. For example some companies that do not require much bandwidth or have a small budget might need to opt for a Fractional T1/DS1 Line. 

Fractional T1 Line/DS1 Line

A Fractional T1/DS1 line typically describes an Internet circuit that uses a "piece" or a "fraction" of a Full T1/DS1. Fractional T1/DS1's are also used for telephone lines or even integrated T1's, but less often then for Internet access. 

A Fractional T1/DS1 can be sold in nearly any fraction of a 24 channel, 1.54Mbps circuit. For example, out of the 24 channels in a Full T1/DS1 line, 12 channels might be used in a Fractional T1/DS1 to provide a 768k connection, which is half of 1.54Mbps. Other Fractional sizes include 1.1 Mbps, 512 Kbps, 384 Kbps, 256 Kbps, 128 Kbps, and even 64 Kbps, although the smaller sizes are very uncommon. 

As T1/DS1 Providers have become more competitive, prices on Full T1/DS1's have come down so much that Fractional T1/DS1's have become less cost effective. For example, a Fractional T1/DS1 of 768k carries only half of the bandwidth of a Full T1/DS1, but usually saves only 5% to 15% of the price of a Full T1. 

This doesn't make much sense in applications where only 1 or 2 T1/DS1 lines are needed, unless the budget is extremely tight. However, this can add up to significant savings when using hundreds of T1/DS1's across a large company's multi-location VPN or frame relay network. 

Integrated T1 Line/DS1 Line

An Integrated T1 Line/DS1 Line is one of the most popular T1/DS1 solutions for small businesses because it provides local telephone service, long distance, and bandwidth all on a single connection and a single bill. The consolidation of these services with one company is more convenient and more cost effective than purchasing them from separate providers. 

Just as a Fractional T1 line only turns on a portion of a T1 Line/DS1 Line for Internet access, special equipment allows some of the T1/DS1 channels to be allocated for telephone lines, while others are used for data transmission and Internet access. For example, a Full Integrated T1 line/DS1 Line could be divided in half using special equipment, providing 12 high quality telephone lines and using the other 12 channels for 768k of bandwidth. 

Fractional Integrated T1 lines/DS1 Lines are also available, but most companies have minimum levels such as 4 phone lines and 512k of Internet access, which only uses 12 channels combined (64 Kbps per channel). Many offers even include blocks of free long distance, usually based on the number of telephone lines being installed. A typical offer might include 6 phone lines(6 channels), 512 kbps (8 channels), and 600 minutes of free LD each month (100 per telephone line). 

This entire circuit could have a total cost as low as $400 to $500 per month, which is a tremendous all inclusive bargain for small businesses. This is a perfect total solution for literally thousands, if not millions, of small companies across the nation. One thing to keep in mind is that not all providers can offer Integrated T1 Lines/DS1 Lines, so the ones that do typically focus a great deal of their sales efforts on this service.

The History And Significance Of T-1 Internet Service

In 1961, T-1 Internet Service was introduced locally. T-Carrier was designated as a general form of every digitally multiplexed telecommunications carrier platforms. Being developed by Bell Labs, the idea was implemented in South Korea, Japan and North America. The regular transfer speed was 1.544 Mbit per second. A European version of the platform was also invented.

Multiplexing carrier systems were known to function for connections made on large distances between cities. But, each voice channel required a demodulator and filter, which were not cheap at all. Bell Labs implemented a pulse modulation T1 system in 1961. After decades have passed, the price of digital electronics has fallen, permitting a codec for every voice channel to become a common thing.

At the rate of 1.544 Mbit per second, T1 became a standard. Initially, the platform had 24 speech signals that were time division multiplexed and pulse code modulated. The encoding of the signals was made in 64 kbit/s streams. There were many T1 multiplexed channels for T2 and T3. The rate of transfer became of either 6.312, or of 44.736 Mbit/s and a T3 line was made of 28 T1 lines.

The optimum bit rate was achieved in an empirical way, as the speed tests were made underground. The capacity kept growing until the failure rate became unacceptable. The capacity was lowered back to an optimal level. Every PCM sample had only seven bits per second, through companding, but the audio rate was an acceptable one.

The rate of 1.544 Mbit per second can be split in multiple channels and this thing can be explained in a more detailed way. For instance, the nominal telephone system voiceband is of 4,000 Hz and a digital sampling rate of 8,000 Hz would be required. There are 8,000 frames per second needed for the T1 platform for maintaining simultaneously twenty four voice channels. The length of each T1 frame is of 193 bits. Twenty four channels with one framing bit and eight bits each makes 193 bits. 193 bits x 8,000 frames/s makes 1.544 Mbit/s.

Initially, Alternate Mark Inversion, or AMI, has been used with T1 in order to decrease the frequency bandwidth and eliminate DC from the signal. Later, B8ZS was implemented and it became very popular. Even if it was normally meant for voice signal transmission, now it is also used for transmitting data. Fiber optics, under the F initial is used as well, with similar rates.

In Europe, the correspondent platform is E-carrier, but it is not compatible with T1. The line rates used are E1 and E3. E1 was made of 32 lines multiplex. E2 also exists, but it is not as popular as the other two. The European version had a standard speed of 2.048 Mbit/s and it had 32 user channels.

T-1 Internet Service has become a very popular platform all over the world, due to its high transfer rate. In the beginning, the platform was used for telephone lines only, to transmit voice signals. Now, data is sent through the lines as well. The system is different form E-carrier, mainly because it has a different speed, of 1.544 Mbit per second, while the European version has a speed of 2.048 Mbit per second.

Our Integrated, Burstable, Fractional and Full T1 coverage area includes all of the following states:

Unlike DSL Service and other Internet broadband technologies that are limited to only metropolitan and densely populated areas, T1 Voice and Internet service is available just about anywhere with a phone line. T1, also known as DS1, uses repeaters to boost up the signal strength of the transmission - allowing it to travel up to 50 miles away from the nearest Central Office location. Our T1 DS1 Voice and Internet coverage area includes all of the following states:

DS1 Line T1 Internet Coverage Area

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